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abril 25, 2020

DIA MUNDIAL DEL PALUDISMO

Paludismo

Cada año desde 2007, el 25 de abril se conmemora en el mundo el Día Mundial del Paludismo también llamado “malaria”, una fecha instituida por la OMS y enfocada en la necesidad de invertir en la prevención y el control de esta enfermedad. 

Según la página de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), el Día Mundial del Paludismo se instituyó por los Estados Miembros en la Asamblea de la Salud de 2007.

Se celebra el 25 de abril, es una ocasión para poner de relieve la necesidad de invertir continuamente en la prevención y el control de la enfermedad y en mantener el compromiso político con este objetivo.

¿Qué es el paludismo?

Según la OMS, el paludismo o malaria es una enfermedad potencialmente mortal causada por el parásito del género Plasmodium que se transmiten al ser humano por la picadura de mosquitos hembra infectados del género Anopheles. Se trata de una enfermedad prevenible y curable.

Hay cinco especies de parásitos causantes del paludismo en el ser humano, aunque dos de ellas Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax son las más peligrosas. El primer parásito es el causante del paludismo más prevalente en el continente africano y el responsable de la mayoría de las muertes por el paludismo en el mundo; el segundo es el parásito dominante en la mayoría de los países fuera del África subsahariana.

Síntomas

El paludismo es una enfermedad febril aguda. En un individuo no inmune, los síntomas suelen aparecer entre 7 y 15 días tras la picadura del mosquito infectado. Puede resultar difícil reconocer el origen palúdico de los primeros síntomas:

  • fiebre,
  • vomito,
  • sudoración
  • dolor de cabeza y
  • escalofríos

Si no se trata en las primeras 24 horas, el paludismo por P. falciparum puede agravarse, llevando a menudo a la muerte.

Los niños con paludismo suelen presentar anemia grave y sufrimiento respiratorio. En el adulto también es frecuente la afectación multiorgánica.

En las zonas donde el paludismo es endémico, las personas pueden adquirir una inmunidad parcial, lo que posibilita la aparición de infecciones asintomáticas.

En 2016, la mitad de la población mundial corría el riesgo de padecer paludismo. La mayoría de los casos y de las muertes se registran en el África subsahariana, pero también se ven afectadas Asia Sudoriental, el Mediterráneo Oriental, el Pacífico Occidental y América.

Estadísticas

En 2018, se estima que hubo 228 millones de casos de malaria en todo el mundo, en comparación con 251 millones de casos en 2010, y 231 millones de casos en 2017.

MALARIA¿Cómo se previene el paludismo?

La OMS recomienda proteger a todas las personas expuestas a contraer la enfermedad mediante medidas eficaces de lucha anti vectorial es decir, contra los mosquitos que la transmiten. Hay dos métodos de lucha contra los mosquitos: los mosquiteros tratados con insecticidas y la fumigación de interiores con insecticidas de acción residual.

 

 

 

 

 

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